The print industry is not alone when it comes to confusing sounding names and phrases, but ours have evolved over hundreds of years and in todays society can sound a little archaic!
Below are listed some of the more common terms along with a selection of those used by the Phamaceutical and Life Sciences communities.
International ISO range of paper sizes reducing from A0 to A6 by folding in half each time. ‘C’ sizes are used
Adverse Event Report
A printed investigator report containing serious/adverse resulls - i.e. injury and death.
A plate used in offset printing, specially treated to harden the
surface so it will resist wearing down in the press.
Printed cards that are completed to remind subjects of their next appointment details.
Material in its final layout, such as type, and illustrations, assembled in preparation for making the printing plate.
Acronym (pronounced Askee) for the American Standard Code for
The facility of some applications to flow text from one page to another or
from one box to another.
Commonily refers to the number of tab dividers per set in a ring-bound document - i.e. 5, 10, or 15 tabs.
Laser scannable labeling for identification and tracking. There are many different formats depending on country and information content.
Assessment of subjects before they enter the study treatment program.
Means the commercial application of knowledge relating to living organisms or systems. It includes nutraceuticals; stem cell research; marine, agricultural and industrial biotechnology, bioinformatics; and new medical treatments in areas such as cancer.
At its simplest, a text character, or graphic made up of dots. In fact, a
bitmap is the set of bits that represents the position and binary state (on
or off) of a corresponding set of items to form a bit image such as on a
A fabric coated with a rubber or synthetic compound that is wrapped around the blanket cylinder on a press and transfers the ink from the press plate to the paper
This refers to the printing that extends beyond the edge of the page. The bleed allowance beyond the trimmed size is usually 3mm.
To make an impression without ink or foil.
Type matter (text) filling the areas below the headline. The main body of the text.
Heavier version of a typeface, as distinct from light or medium. Sometimes abbreviated to BF (bold face).
Originally a term for the cotton-content of paper used in legal documents and bonds, it now more commonily refers to writing, digital and pre-cut sized plain paper.
Business Reply Envelope. A pre-addressed envelope to be returned to the mailer. The mailer pays postage only on envelopes returned.
Paper term used to describe the degree of thickness of a paper.
C4, C5, C6, C7
Envelopes with dimensions specifically to contain flat sheets of equivalent ‘A’ size paper e.g. C4 envelope holds flat A4 sheet. N.B. Envelope is larger than sheet.
Case Report Form (CRF)
A document that is used to collate all the study information relating to a particular subject of a clinical trial. Can comprise of several forms depending on the breadth of the investigation.
A paper or board that has been coated and polished to a hard glossy finish to give the impression of varnishing or laminating.
Coated bottom; NCR middle copy
Type which lies central across the width of a page or column.
Coated Front; NCR bottom copy
Coated both sides; NCR middle copy
Clinical Research Associate
An individual acting on the sponsor’s behalf whose primary role is to monitor the progress of the sites participating in the study.
Clinical Research Organization (CRO)
Normally contracted by a sponsor to run drug/treatment trials on their behalf, managing and collating the resultant data.
Detailed study of a medical item, such as an experimental drug, to gauge the potential benefits/adverse reactions in the treatment of both humans or animals.
Abbreviation for the process colours of Cyan (C), Magenta (M), Yellow
(Y) and Black (K) used in four colour printing.
A genera term for Art, Chromo and Enamel papers or similar groups in
which the surface has a mineral coating applied after the body paper is
made. Also known as surface paper..
When the rubber blanket on a cylinder moves forward due to contact with the plate or paper.
Type of colour proof produced electro-statically without making proofing plates.
Folds, which are at right angles to the direction of the feed of paper through the machine.
Type of binder using a metal mechanism.
The manipulation of data using a computer. This may be to produce a mailing file and may include a series of processes such as deduplication, sorting for mailing and selection into different ways for different mailing packs.
System of removing names and addresses, which appear in a list more than once.
An electronic precision instrument used to measure the quantitive
colours or density of a colour transparency or printed image.
A cutter, which is specially shaped to punch out paper or card into irregular shapes.
Where all images/characters are in relief.
A proof produced on a digital printing machine.
To convert an image or signal into binary code. Visual images are digitised by scanning them, then assigning a binary code to the resulting vector or raster graphics data.
An increase in the size of a halftone dot - as it is transferred from film to plate, from plate to blanket and from blanket to paper - that may occur as a result of errors or imperfections in any of the steps between screening an image and printing.
Double Blind Study
Neither participants nor investigators are aware of which treatment a subject is receiving.
Strictly speaking, a monochromatic image consisting of two halftones made from the same original to two different tonal ranges, so that when printed - in different shades of the same colour - a greater tonal range is produced.
The ability to print on both sides of a single sheet of paper without manually turning the paper over.
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
A file format for high-resolution PostScript images.
The structure and arrangement of data lying within a file (including the data’s size and sequence).
The process between printing and completion (i.e. binding, stitching and folding).
Plastic film with a gold, silver, or metalized colouring, used to block
designs, particularly onto packaging and book covers. Clear, stable film
used as a backing during film assembly.
Technically, the number of a leaf of a book when it is not numbered as
two separate pages. However, a folio number is generally said to mean a
Nomenclature for script definition (style of typeface).
A fold that folds in towards the centre which when, opened provide a double gate effect.
To place in correct order sections of a book or leaves of a multi-part set.
Term used by the Post Office to indicate that the person at the address to which a mail shot was directed is no longer residing there. The Post Office normally returns all ‘gone aways’ if a return address of the mailing company or principal is printed on
Weight of paper expressed as grammes per square metre.
A type of printing technique. The surface to be printed is etched below the non-printing areas of a printing plate/Also photogravure.
Abbreviation of grams per square metre, a method of indicating or measuring the substance of a sheet of paper on the basis of weight in grams per square metre. Standard bond is around 80 GSM.
A machine, which cuts paper by means of a tungsten-carbide blade descending onto a flat surface.
The application of gum arabic to the non-printing areas of a plate.
A margin in a book or on a sheet used for binding, punching etc.
Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.
The reproduction of continuous tone artwork, such as a photograph through a cross-ruled screen that converts the image into a pattern of dots of various size.
Means medical products and services, including diagnostics, radiotherapy and imaging; healthcare equipment and it; and patient care.
Is a six-colour. ink printing process that extends the range of available colours CMYK + green + orange.
A common printing defect, visible as a spot surrounded by a blank halo,
caused by a speck of dirt pushing the paper away from the printing
Design or copy, which is a distinctive production of the company who produced it.
Hue, Saturation, Brightness. Hue is the pigment, saturation is the amount of pigment, and brightness is the amount of white included. With the HSB model, all colours can be defined by expressing their levels of hue, saturation and brightness.
The ability to perceive the main attributes of colours using the human eye.
A high resolution output device that is used to produce reproduction
quality copy for printing, either as camera ready artwork on bromide
paper or as film negatives or positives.
A type of glue that is used in the manufacture of envelopes.
The pressure of plates in contact with either the blanket or paper at the moment of printing. Also the image left after printing has taken place.
The printer's imprint is the name of the printer and the place of printing (a legal requirement in many countries if the work is to be published). The publisher's imprint is the name of the publisher, usually printed on the title page of a book.
The fountain supplying ink to a printing press.
When a publication goes from a web press to a binding line and is finished (including trimming) in a single operation.
Loose or bound-in promotion within a magazine, newspaper, or other publication. To insert items into a mail pack.
A printing process that uses an etched or engraved plate.
Sheets of paper placed between newly printed sheets in order to prevent ink transfer. Also called slip sheeting. Blank pages between the printed pages of a book, provided for handwritten notes.
Investigator site files.
Description of general printing, not specialising in any field (such as book work) and usually consisting of short runs.
Joint Photographic Experts Group. A highly compressed graphics format designed to handle computer images of high-resolution photographs as efficiently as possible.
Typesetting aligned to margins as justified left and right.
Black lines drawn on artwork indicating the exact placement, shape and size of elements including halftones, illustrations, etc.
A fold created by a blunt straight edge plunging down into the middle of a flat sheet.
The applying of film, usually by heat welding to a card or other paper materials to give a durable, cleanable shiny surface on printing products.
The edge of a sheet or leaflet/booklet that goes first into the processing or envelope machine.
Is the scientific study of the living world.
A printing process, invented in 1798 by the German Aloys Senefelder, that produces an image from a dampened, flat surface, using greasy ink, based on the principle of the mutual repulsion of oil and water.
Type consists of upper and lower case letters. Upper case describes the capitals, lower case the remainder.
A proof that has been prepared from a print machine plate, or blocks as for the run.
A Company, which offers all aspects of a direct mail service, prior to its dispatch (from idea, printing, packing, through to mailing).
Schemes for pre-sorted mailings for which the Royal Mail offer discounts. There are three service standards: first class, second-class and slower bulk rate.
The preparation time in setting up a print or other machine before actual production can get underway.
An original in one colour only.
An aberration occurring in halftone reproduction when two or more
colours are printed, giving a halftone image, an appearance rather like
that of watered silk. This is caused by two or more dot screens being
positioned at the wrong angles, or sometimes
Mailing Preference Service - A system of registration for individuals who do not wish to receive unwanted mail.
May also be called 'Multi-Center Trial', a single protocol clinical trial that is instituted at more than one location and investigator.
Not performed on human subjects.
Type of binder ring resembling an 'O' shape.
Optical Character Recognition. The interpretation of characters by a computer, which scans the text and stores, reads or translates data.
Trial in which both investigators and subjects are aware of the product they are being given.
Operations given to another company, either for specialism or to increase capacity.
To run a previously printed piece through the printing presses a second time in order to add further material in required positions.
A brand name of an international colour matching system for printing/art products, which has a common usage.
A Portable Document Format developed by Adobe, which has a fixed file format. It holds a document with the content and presentation features fixed, thereby retaining all the features and style of the document as originally intended
Printing both sides of a sheet in one pass through the machine, or printing the second side of a sheet - backing-up.
The process of punching holes into paper or card, either as a code or to facilitate tearing off a part.
Means, principally, drug discovery, development and manufacture.
In lithographic printing an image is etched onto metal (or plastic) plates and wrapped around a cylinder to which ink and water is then applied to produce a printer image.
A pantone colour-matching system that enables an exact identification and matching system for printing.
Part of the copy, which has been printed before receiving additional, printed material to it.
The preparation work required to turn camera-ready artwork into the printing plates needed for mass production (e.g. scanning, stripping and colour separating).
A printing term given to preparatory work completed prior to proofing.
The number of copies printed or the process of printing a particular job
A set of proofs made from the separate plates showing each colour individually and in register.
A trial printed sheet or copy, made before the production run, for the purpose of checking.
Document describing the specifics of clinical trial background, intent, design, organisation and rational.
Quality of Life study (questionnaire).
Usually regulation materials submitted to site prior to actual CRF binders.
Pre-press camera work, scanning and film make-up (short for ‘reproduction’).
Correcting, improving or altering a photographic print or transparency before reproduction.
Type printing white out of another colour, or any light colour out of a dark surround.
A folding method. Material is rolled around itself at each fold.
A run on in relation to copy is where the copy continues on the same line as opposed to a new line. In printing it relates to the numbers of sheets or items printed over the original request, often quoted in a £ per thousand.
A method of securing pages in a brochure by stitching them, while they are opened over a saddle shaped support, through the back with wire staples. Also called 'wire stitch'.
An idea, which has been drawn up roughly. Also known as a rough or first visual.
Printing process whereby ink is forced through a fine mesh stretched across a frame. The image is formed by means of a hand-cut or photographically generated stencil, which is bonded to the screen.
A folded sheet of paper that will make up part of a book or booklet, usually printed in 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 page sections.
Names (sometimes fictitious) and addresses, which are planted in a list to enable the owner to monitor delivery performance of the Post Office, presentation by mailing house etc. It is also means of checking for possible illegal use of a list.
The accidental transfer of ink from a printed sheet onto the back of the
next sheet. In lithography it refers to an impression taken from a key
outline of a design which is powdered with a non greasy dye while the
ink is damp, then placed on the stone
The flat size of cut paper for printing, before it is folded and cut or trimmed.
The method of feeding individual cut sheets into a printing press as opposed to reel-fed.
To print each side of the sheet from a separate set of plates.
A folded section of a book with the pages in the correct numbered sequence, or (in printing) a printed sheet to be folded, or (in stripping) the stripped flats to be printed and folded.
A laser printing term meaning printed on one side only. Duplex is the term for printing both sides.
All original documents/data/records, regardless of form, associated with a specific clinical trial.
Refers to the heel or binding side of a binder; frequently cover and spine inserts are part of a CRF binder package.
Coiled binding looking like a spiral.
A test where one element of a promotion is tested against another or a control using alternate copies of the same issue of the same publication. There are also known as A/B splits in the press, and a ‘head to head’ in direct mail.
The waste incurred during either the printing, mailing or finishing processes.
A special colour run seperately on the press; commonly a Pantone (PMS) ink that is difficult or impossible to match out of four colour process or for a corporate identity that has to be exact.
A proofreader’s instruction, which means to ignore, marked correction, i.e. let the text stand as it was originally.
Pages are stapled in some fashion.
The word stochastic means 'involving a random variable', stochastic screening uses randomly placed dots instead of the traditional halftone dots aligned along the nice, neat (and visible) screen angles. Stochastic and FM screening have become synonymous.
Subject/Patient Identification Code
Totally unique identifier assigned to each trial subject by the study organiser.
Paper, card, metal - any material onto which an image is to be printed.
A set of colour specimens printed on paper or a set of material samples.
The page size of newspaper that is half the size of a broadsheet.
Divider pages that have paper extending past the normal paper size for indexing purposes; may be printed and/or Mylar coated (either clear or colored) for added durability, alternatively an all over or part lamination coating can be added.
Superior heavier weight (170gsm) bottom sheet (CF) typical colours are Pink and Chamois (cream).
A test, which determines either the strength or the grain direction in paper, by assessing its ease of tearing.
Three guillotines that trim the top, bottom and side of a book in one pass.
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
A file used for storing and exchanging bitmapped images.
A term used in printing to denote a shaded area of colour. Created by screening the colour to produce the relevant level of colour required and normally expressed as a percentage of the colour.
An insert, which is placed loose between the pages of a publication.
An item glued to a printed piece.
Colour variation or shades of grey as in a photograph.
Reproduction house term for the way in which ink is controlled on overlapping areas of colour.
Marks on original artwork, film, or a printed sheet which act as a guide for trimming the sheet during finishing or as register marks during printing.
A specifically designated style of type, e.g. Helvetica, Times, etc.
Typesetting errors in copy caused or repeated in the same assembly to type.
Under Colour Removal (UCR)
The technique of removing unwanted colour from scanned colour separations either to reduce the amount of ink or because the colours cancel each other out, such as removing the magenta and yellow dots when there is enough black and cyan to cover.
Includes the following entries: data glyphs, bar codes, site specific information, consecutive or sequential numbering.
This scale is used to visually help rate the intensity of certain sensations and feelings such as pain. A typical VAS example would be represented by a straight line with descriptors at each end.
Half-tone fading out around its edges.
Wet on Wet
A term describing the process of printing on multicolour presses, with each successive ink colour being printed on the sheet before the previous ink colour has time to dry.
Term used in copy where a single word or short phrase is left alone on a line.
A fold that resembles the letter Z. To make a Z fold paper is folded into three equal parts, so that the central third forms the ‘diagonal’ in the letter Z. Also known as a zigzag fold
This is a synonym for compressed files.